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    Ailments

    • Abdominal Pain

      What is Abdominal Pain? Abdominal pain or stomach pain refers to discomfort in the space between the chest and pelvis. It is a common complaint which can be caused by trivial to life threatening conditions. Abdominal pain is a common reason for vis...

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    • Abscess

      What is an Abscess? An Abscess is a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the tissue due to an infection by bacteria, parasite or a foreign substance like splinters, needles, wounds, etc. There can be a single or multiple individual erup...

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    • Acidosis

      What is Acidosis? Acidosis is a process or processes leading to increased acidity in blood and body tissues. Acidemia is a low blood pH falling below 7.35. There can be Metabolic acidosis or Respiratory Acidosis. Causes Metabolic acidosis can occu...

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    • Acne

      What is Acne? Acne Vulgaris is an inflammatory skin disorder of the pilosebaceous unit, triggered by Cutibacterium acnes in adolescence, under the influence of normal circulating DHEA. It is a very common disorder affecting mainly teenagers and you...

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    • Acute Cough

      What is Cough? Cough is one of the most common complaints for clinic visits accounting for as many as 30 million visits to the doctor per year. Acute cough is one of the most common presentations in general practice. Cough in general, is an innate p...

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    • ADHD

      What is ADHD? Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that can cause inattention, or excessive activity and impulsiveness which is not appropriate for age. Both adults and children can have ADHD. More than 60% of...

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    • Alcohol Abuse/Alcoholism

      What is Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism? Alcohol is a psychoactive substance with dependence-producing properties. Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism are two terms which are often used interchangeably but they have marked differences. Alcohol abusers are tho...

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    • Allergy

      What is Allergy? Allergy is an exaggerated or pathological immunological reaction to substances, situations, or physical states that are without comparable effect on the average individual. It is an altered bodily reactivity, such as hypersensitivit...

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    • Alopecia/Hair Loss

      What is Alopecia? Alopecia, also known as hair loss or baldness, is an autoimmune condition characterized by loss of hair from part of the head or body, but mostly it is seen affecting the head. It can be in a small patch or may affect the entire bo...

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    • Amnesia

      What is Amnesia? Amnesia is a memory deficit or loss due to a brain disease. Although a mild loss of memory is common with increasing age, an evident degree of memory loss may indicate an underlying condition. There are 2 types of Amnesia - Retrogr...

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    • Anaemia

      What is Anaemia? According to WHO, anaemia is defined as blood haemoglobin (Hb) concentration < 13 g/dL or haematocrit (Hct) <39% in adult males; Hb <11.5 g/dL or Hct <37% in adult females. It can be caused by various conditions which le...

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    • Anxiety and Panic Attacks

      What are Anxiety and Panic Attacks? Anxiety is an abnormal and overwhelming sense of apprehension and fear often marked by physical signs (such as tension, sweating, and increased pulse rate), by doubt concerning the reality and nature of the threat...

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    • Arthritis

      What is Arthritis? Arthritis is an inflammation of joints due to infectious, metabolic, or constitutional causes. There are more than 100 types of arthritis which have different cause and treatment measures. Joint pain, stiffness and swelling are th...

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    • Asthma

      What is Asthma? Asthma is a syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of breathing difficulty, cough (often at night), sputum and wheeze caused by reversible airway obstruction. Majority of the cases have a childhood-onset disease and are associa...

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    • Benign Hypertrophy of Prostate

      Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) also called as Benign enlargement of the Prostate is an increase in size of the Prostate. It involves hyperplasia of prostatic cells, resulting in the formation of large, fairly discrete nodules. The Prostate gland ...

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    • Bladder Infection/Cystitis

      What is Cystitis? Cystitis is the inflammation of the urinary bladder which is a lower urinary tract infection. It affects women more often than men. 81% of the total UTIs in the world occur in women. Mild cases are self-limiting but it can become ...

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    • Blurring of Vision

      What is Blurred Vision? Blurring of vision is the lack of sharpness of vision resulting in difficulty to see fine details. It can affect one eye or both eyes depending on the cause. Causes Blurring of vision can be due to many conditions, some com...

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    • Bronchitis

      What is Bronchitis? Bronchitis is the acute or chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes which carry air to the lungs. Acute bronchitis lasts for a few weeks and Chronic bronchitis is recurrent or it comes back again and again. Causes About 5% o...

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    • Bruxism

      What is Bruxism? Bruxism can be defined as the involuntary, unconscious, and excessive grinding of teeth. During bruxism, there is forceful contact between the biting surfaces of maxillary and mandibular teeth. It may occur while awake, and it is th...

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    • Bunion

      What is a Bunion? Hallux valgus (HV), also known as a bunion, is one of the most common forefoot deformities, manifesting with the proximal phalanx deviating laterally and the first metatarsal head deviating medially. It occurs due to the adduction ...

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    • Burn Care

      What is a Burn? A burn is an injury to the skin or other organic tissue caused by heat or due to radiation, radioactivity, electricity, friction or contact with chemicals. Almost 86% of burns are caused by thermal injury, while about 4% are electric...

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    • Bursitis

      What is Bursitis? Bursitis is a swelling or inflammation of a bursa, which is a synovium-lined, sac-like structure found all over the body near bony prominences and between bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bursae facilitates movement in the ...

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    • Cellulitis

      What is Cellulitis? Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection responsible for 551?000 DALYs and 42.9 million incident cases in 2019 globally. It presents as a poorly demarcated, warm, erythematous area with associated oedema and tenderness. I...

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    • Chlamydia

      What is Chlamydia? Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is the most common sexually transmitted infection affecting globally. It causes an ocular infection called "trachoma," which ...

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    • Chronic Back Pain

      What is Back Pain? Back pain is one of the most common complaints for which people visit the doctor or miss work due to disability. Lower back pain or Lumbago is not a disease but a symptom of several types of disorders. It can present as a dull ach...

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    • Chronic Cough

      What is Cough? Cough is one of the most common complaints for clinic visits accounting for as many as 30 million visits to the doctor per year. Cough in general, is an innate protective reflex characterized by sudden expulsion of air from breathing ...

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    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

      What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease? Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs. It is associated with structural lung changes due to chronic inflammati...

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    • Common Cold (Viral Rhinitis)

      What is Viral Rhinitis Rhinitis refers to the inflammation of the nasal mucosal linings which is usually associated with environmental allergies or respiratory viral infections. Acute Viral Rhinitis is the most common form of any infectious disease...

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    • Common Wart

      What is a Wart? Warts are benign lesions that occur in the mucosa and skin caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV may occur at any site and are easily transmitted by direct or indirect contact, especially if there is the disruption of the nor...

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    • Constipation

      What is Constipation? Constipation is generally described as having fewer than three bowel movements a week. Functional constipation is a prevalent condition in childhood affecting about 29.6% of the population worldwide. Chronic idiopathic constip...

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    • Corns

      What are corns? Corns are thick, hardened layers of skin that develop when your skin tries to protect itself against friction and pressure. They most often develop on the feet and toes or hands and fingers. Corns tend to be small and round and can b...

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    • Crohn’s Disease

      What is Crohn's Disease? Crohn disease (CD) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The inflammation in this disease affects the entire thickness of the bowel wall from the mucosa to the serosa and it runs a relapsing and remitting course. It...

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    • Croup

      What is Croup? The spectrum of Croup comprises 3 conditions - Laryngotracheitis, laryngotracheobronchitis, and laryngotracheobronchopneumonitis. Croup is a common respiratory illness affecting the trachea, larynx, and bronchi that can lead to inspi...

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    • Degenerative Disc Disease

      What is Degenerative Disc Disease? Intervertebral discs are pads of fibrocartilage-based structures present between each vertebral body of the spine that provide support, flexibility, and share some load as well. These are composed of two layers: nu...

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    • Dementia

      What is Dementia? According to WHO, Dementia is a syndrome, usually of a chronic or progressive nature, in which there is deterioration in cognitive function (i.e. the ability to process thought) beyond what might be expected from normal ageing. It...

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    • Dental Abscess

      What is Dental abscess? Dental abscesses or periapical infections typically arise secondary to dental caries, trauma, or failed dental root canal treatment. The different types of dental abscesses depend on location. The three most common types are:...

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    • Depression

      What is Depression? Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. The American Psychiatric Associationעs Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) classifies the depre...

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    • Dermal Ulcer

      What is Dermal Ulcer? Dermal ulcer or skin ulcer is an open sore resulting from an injury, poor circulation or pressure. It can develop on any part of the body but are most common on lower extremities, mouth or lips, hips and gluteal region. Types ...

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    • Dermatitis

      What is Dermatitis? Dermatitis refers to the inflammation of skin and comprises a range of ailments. In general, dermatitis presents with dry, swollen and red skin, causes and features of which, vary according to the type of dermatitis. The common ...

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    • Diabetes mellitus

      What is Diabetes Mellitus? Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease, involving inappropriately elevated blood glucose levels. DM has several categories, including type 1, type 2, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), gestational diabetes...

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    • Diarrhoea

      What is Diarrhoea? Diarrhoea is defined as three or more loose or watery stools in a day. It can be acute or chronic and infectious or noninfectious based on the duration and type of symptoms. Acute diarrhoea is defined as an episode lasting less t...

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    • Earache / Otitis

      What is Earache or Otalgia? Otalgia or ear pain can be divided into: primary and secondary otalgia. Primary otalgia is ear pain that occurs from an underlying pathology in the inner, middle, or external ear. Secondary or referred otalgia is ear pain...

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    • Eating Disorders

      What are Eating Disorders? Eating disorders are defined as the disruption in the eating behavior with excessive concern about body weight that impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning. DSM-5 mentions eight categories in feeding and eatin...

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    • Edema / Oedema

      What is Oedema? Oedema is an abnormal infiltration and excess accumulation of serous fluid in connective tissue or in a serous cavity. Edema can affect any part of the body and ranges from local swelling to anasarca, depending on the underlying path...

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    • Elbow Sprain

      What is Elbow Sprain? Elbow sprain is an injury to the soft tissues of the elbow caused due to stretching or tearing (partial or full) of the ligaments which support the elbow joint. Pulled or torn ligaments can be extremely painful and limit the ab...

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    • Encopresis

      What is Encopresis? Encopresis or fecal incontinence is defined as involuntary passing of stool into inappropriate places in children older than four years of age. It causes great psychological distress on children and their families. In the DSM-5, ...

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    • Endometriosis

      What is Endometriosis? Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disorder characterized by the presence and growth of functioning endometrial tissue in places other than the uterus that often results in severe pain and infertility. The endometriosis...

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    • Epilepsy

      What is Epilepsy? Epilepsy is a chronic noncommunicable disease of the brain affecting around 50 million people worldwide, characterized by recurrent seizures. Seizures are brief episodes of involuntary movement that may involve a part of the body ...

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    • Esophagitis

      What is Esophagitis? Esophagitis is the inflammation or injury to the esophageal mucosa characterised by a retrosternal chest pain, heartburn, dysphagia or odynophagia. One of the most common causes is gastroesophageal reflux, which can lead to eros...

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    • Farsightedness (Hyperopia)

      What is Farsightedness or Hyperopia? Hyperopia refers to the refractive condition of the eye where parallel light rays coming from the infinity are focussed behind the neurosensory retina (after refraction through the ocular media ) when accommodati...

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    • Fatigue

      What is Fatigue? Fatigue is the lack of energy and motivation (both physical and mental). It can be a normal response to physical and mental activity. In most cases it is quickly relieved, usually in hours to about a day, depending on the intensity ...

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    • Female Pattern Baldness

      What is Female Pattern Baldness? Female Pattern Baldness or androgenetic alopecia is a genetic disorder occurring due to excessive response to androgens which affects up to 50% of males and females. It is characterized by progressive loss of termina...

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    • Fever

      What is Fever? Pyrexia or fever is an abnormal elevation of body temperature. It is said to be present when: Rectal temperature is at or over 37.5 - 38.3ºC (99.5 - 100.9ºF) Oral Temperature is at or over 37.2ºC (99.0 ºF) in the morning or ov...

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    • Fibroids

      What are Fibroids? Uterine fibroids or leiomyomata are the most common benign tumors affecting women originating from uterine smooth muscle cells (myometrium) the growth of which is dependent on the levels of circulating oestrogen. Fibroids can pre...

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    • Fibromyalgia

      What is Fibromyalgia? Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue, cognitive disturbance, psychiatric and multiple somatic symptoms. Fibromyalgia has an unknown etiology and uncertain pathophy...

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    • Flu (Influenza)

      What is Influenza? Influenza is a communicable viral disease that affects the upper and lower respiratory tract and is caused by influenza viruses. A wide spectrum of influenza viruses causes it, among them there are 4 types of seasonal influenza vi...

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    • Food Allergy

      What is Food Allergy? Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food caused by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody. It affects about 4% to 6% of children and 4% of adults, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Allergic reactions s...

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    • Frostbite

      What is Frostbite? Frostbite, or freezing cold injury (FCI) is defined as tissue damage occurring as a result of cold exposure, occurring at temperatures below 0 degrees C. There is high risk for ischemic tissue injury and necrosis. Patients that su...

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    • Frozen Shoulder

      What is a Frozen Shoulder? Adhesive capsulitis (AC) or frozen shoulder is an insidious inflammatory condition of the shoulder that causes fibrosis of the joint capsule and persists for more than 3 months. It is accompanied by gradually progressive s...

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    • Furuncle

      What is a Furuncle? A furuncle is a type of abscess that forms around a hair follicle and contains pus occurring due to an infection by bacteria, parasite or a foreign substance like splinters, needles, wounds, etc. It starts as a red tender lump wh...

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    • Gastric Ulcer

      What is Gastric Ulcer? Gastric ulcers are a break in the mucosal barrier of the stomach lining that penetrates through the muscularis mucosa and are greater than 5 mm in diameter. There are natural factors such as prostaglandins, mucus growth factor...

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    • Gastroenteritis

      What is Gastroenteritis? Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small and large intestines characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal discomfort. Most cases are infectious, but it may also occur a...

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    • Gingivitis

      What is Gingivitis? Gingivitis is an inflammatory condition of the soft-tissue area of the gingival epithelium or the gums and connective tissue most commonly due to a bacterial infection. It is considered to be the commonest periodontal disease. It...

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    • Gonorrhoea

      What is Gonorrhoea? Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a sexually transmitted disease that causes worldwide morbidity and disproportionately impacts young adult populations. It is the second most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections worl...

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    • Gouty Arthritis

      What is Gout? Gout is a metabolic disease marked by a painful inflammation of the joints, deposits of urates in and around the joints, and usually an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood. It is characterized by monosodium urate (MSU) monohydr...

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    • Hay Fever

      What is Hay Fever? Hay Fever or Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease presenting with symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, clear rhinorrhoea, and nasal pruritus. It is an IgE-mediated immune response that is against inhaled antigens in the ...

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    • Hemorrhoids

      What are Haemorrhoids? The term haemorrhoids, also known as piles, and hemorrhoidal disease refer to the state of symptoms attributed to the vascular cushions present in the anal canal. These are naturally occurring vascular issues within the submuc...

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    • Hepatitis

      What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is defined as inflammation of the liver that can result from a variety of causes such as heavy alcohol use, autoimmune, drugs, or toxins. The most frequent cause of hepatitis is due to viral infection and is referred to ...

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    • Herpes Simplex

      What is Herpes Simplex? Herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, host-adapted pathogens that cause a wide variety of disease conditions. The two types of conditions caused by herpes simplex are Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and Herpes simplex type 2 (...

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    • Hypercholesterolemia

      What is Hypercholesterolemia? Hypercholesterolemia or High cholesterol can be defined as a LDL-cholesterol greater than 190 mg/dL, greater than 160 mg/dL with one major risk factor, or greater than 130 mg/dL with two cardiovascular risk factors. The...

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    • Hypertension

      What is Hypertension? Hypertension is a condition in which the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of a person is ≥140 mm Hg and/or the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is≥90 mm Hg following repeated examination. It is a serious medical condition that s...

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    • Hypotension

      What is Hypotension? Hypotension is classified based on the biometric parameters of the blood pressure measurement. It may be absolute with changes in systolic blood pressure to less than 90 mm Hg or mean arterial pressure of less than 65 mm Hg. It ...

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    • Impotence (Erectile Dysfunction)

      What is Impotence? Erectile dysfunction (ED), formerly termed impotence, is defined as "the inability to attain and/or maintain penile erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance" or "the consistent or recurrent inability to attain and/o...

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    • Indigestion

      What is Indigestion? Dyspepsia or indigestion (also called functional dyspepsia) is defined by the Rome II Committee on functional gastrointestinal disorders as chronic or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen. Functional dyspep...

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    • Ingrown Toenail

      What is Ingrown toenail? Ingrown toenail, also known as onychocryptosis or unguius incarnatus, occurs when the nail plate grows into the periungual skin and causes inflammation and infection. The hallux or the big toe nails are the most frequent loc...

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    • Insect Bite

      What is Insect Bite? Insects are arthropods of the class Insecta. Insects have an adult stage characterized by a hard exoskeleton, 3 pairs of jointed legs, and a body segmented into head, thorax, and abdomen. Arthropods make up the largest division ...

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    • Insomnia

      What is Insomnia? Insomnia is defined as repeated difficulty with sleep initiation, maintenance, consolidation, or quality that occurs despite adequate time and opportunity for sleep and that results in some form of daytime impairment. According to ...

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    • Iron Deficiency

      What is Iron deficiency? Iron deficiency or sideropenia is a state where total body iron stores are inadequate to support normal metabolic functions. Iron is essential for multiple biological functions of the body and is required for the synthesis o...

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    • Irritable Bowel Syndrome

      What is Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habit in the absence of a specific and unique organic pathology usually. The pat...

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    • Jammed Finger

      What is a Jammed finger? Jammed finger is caused by a type of blunt impact in which the tip of the finger is pushed back toward the hand. The momentum from the impact's force can stretch or even tear the ligaments in the finger which can cause sprai...

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    • Jaundice

      What is Jaundice? Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of an excess of bilirubin. The normal serum levels of bilirubin are less than 1mg/dl, however, jaundice become...

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    • Jet Lag Disorder

      What is a Jet lag disorder? Jet lag occurs when air travel allows a person to move time zones in a short amount of time, thus causing the intrinsic circadian rhythm to be in desynchrony with external light cues. It usually includes when the person i...

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    • Jock Itch

      What is Jock Itch? Jock itch also called as Tinea cruris, is an infection involving the genital, pubic, perineal, and perianal skin caused by pathogenic fungi known as dermatophytes. Intertriginous areas are suitable environments for fungus with swe...

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    • Joint Infection

      What is Joint infection (Septic arthritis)? Septic arthritis is joint inflammation secondary to an infectious aetiology, usually bacterial, but occasionally fungal, mycobacterial, viral, or other uncommon pathogens. The joint involvement is usually ...

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    • Joint Pain (Arthritis)

      What is Joint pain? Joint pain or arthritis is defined as an acute or chronic joint inflammation that often co-exists with pain and structural damage. The disorder must be differentiated from arthralgia which is the localised pain in a joint regardl...

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    • Keratitis

      What is Keratitis? Keratitis is a condition characterised by the inflammation of the cornea. The condition is marked by the presence of a clear dome on the front surface of the eye, which becomes inflamed. Nearly 1 million people are diagnosed with ...

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    • Kidney Cyst/ Renal Cyst

      What is a Kidney Cyst? Renal cysts or kidney cysts are sacs of fluid that form in the kidneys. They are usually characterized as "simple" cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water-like fluid. Since they are asymptomatic, renal cysts are...

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    • Kidney Stones / Renal Stones

      What are Kidney Stones? Renal calculi are a common cause of blood in the urine (haematuria) and pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. They occur in one in 11 people at some time in their lifetimes with males being affected more than females. For pat...

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    • Knee Pain

      What is Knee Pain? Knee pain is a common complaint among adults which is commonly associated with general wear and tear from daily activities like walking, bending, standing and lifting. Athletes who run or play sports that involve jumping or quick ...

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    • Laceration

      What is Laceration? Lacerations are a pattern of injury in which skin and the underlying tissues are cut or torn. Unlike an abrasion, the skin isn't missing. A cut is typically thought of as a wound caused by a sharp object, like a shard of glass. U...

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    • Laryngitis

      What is Laryngitis? Laryngitis refers to inflammation of the larynx and it can have an acute and chronic presentation. Whereas acute laryngitis typically persists for a period of 3-7 days, chronic laryngitis manifests for over three weeks. Laryngiti...

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    • Leg Pain

      What is Leg Pain? Pain in any part of the leg is considered to be a common symptom of trauma or a disease which requires a thorough investigation. Leg pain can be sharp, dull, numb, tingling, burning, radiating or aching depending upon the cause of ...

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    • Lice

      What is Lice? Lice are parasitic insects that can be found on the head and body of human beings, including the pubic area. Human lice survive by feeding on human blood. The three types of lice that live on humans are: Pediculus humanus capitis (h...

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    • Lightheadedness

      What is lightheadedness? Feeling woozy, lightheaded, or a little faint is a common symptom in adults. Light-headedness is a feeling of faintness, dizziness, or being close to passing out. However, light-headedness is not the same as dizziness. Dizzi...

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    • Lipoma

      What is Lipoma? Lipomas are defined as a common subcutaneous growth composed of adipose (fat) cells, often encapsulated by a thin layer of fibrous tissue. Lipomas are the most frequent tumours which are encountered by the clinicians. However, lipoma...

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    • Major Depressive Disorder

      What is Major Depressive Disorder? Major depression, also known as unipolar or major depressive disorder (MDD), is characterized by a persistent feeling of sadness or a lack of interest in outside stimuli. Depression is a serious mood disorder and i...

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    • Malaria

      What is Malaria? Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes called as malaria vectors. Total of 5 species cause malaria in human bein...

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    • Mania

      What is Mania? Mania is defined as a state of excitement manifested by mental and physical hyperactivity, disorganization of behaviour and elevation of mood. Periods of high or irritable mood are called manic episodes. The patient becomes very activ...

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    • Mastitis

      What is Mastitis? Inflammation of one or more mammary glands within the breast is called mastitis. Though mastitis commonly affects lactating women (lactational mastitis) but it can occur in non-lactating women and in men also. It occurs in the fir...

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    • Measles

      What is measles? Measles (also called as rubeola) is a preventable highly contagious and an acute febrile viral illness accounting for the most important cause of global mortality and morbidity. It is an acute febrile exanthema characterised by thre...

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    • Menopausal Disorder/ Syndrome

      What are Menopausal disorders? Menopause is the permanent cessation of menses for 12 months resulting from oestrogen deficiency and is not associated with a pathology. The average age of attaining menopause is 51 years. Post-menopause describes the ...

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    • Migraine

      What is Migraine? The word migraine is derived from the Greek word hemikrania. Migraine is a genetically influenced complex disorder characterized by episodes of moderate-to-severe headache. These headaches are generally unilateral and associated wi...

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    • Mumps

      What are Mumps? Mumps is an infection caused by a virus and spread human-to-human via direct contact or by airborne droplets. It is sometimes called infectious parotitis. The disease affects the salivary glands primarily. Mumps occurs worldwide, wi...

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    • Muscle Cramps (Spasm)

      What are Muscle cramps? Muscle spasm or cramps is the result of continuous, involuntary, painful, and localized contraction of an entire muscle group, individual single muscle, or select muscle fibres. Muscle spasm is a more encompassing term referr...

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    • Muscle Strain

      What is Muscle Strain? It is a contraction-induced injury in which muscle fibres tear due to extensive mechanical stress. This mostly occurs as a result of a powerful eccentric contraction or overstretching of the muscle. Causes A muscle strain ca...

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    • NAIL TRAUMA

      What is Nail Trauma? A fingernail or a toenail can be injured by a blow to the nail or by any crash injury to the distal phalanx (finger pinched in a drawer/doorway) leading to nail trauma. This kind of trauma results in the collection of blood unde...

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    • NARCOLEPSY

      What is Narcolepsy? Narcolepsy is a disorder of rapid onset of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), frequent uncontrollable sleep attacks as well as sleep fragmentation. It is also associated with catap...

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    • Nasal Polyps

      What are Nasal Polyps? Nasal polyps are benign inflammatory and hyperplastic outgrowths of the sinonasal mucosa. It is present most commonly in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRs) in which diffuse nasal polyposis is seen. Hence, the term chro...

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    • Nausea

      What is Nausea? Nausea is the unpleasant sensation that precedes vomiting. Nausea frequently is relieved by vomiting and may be accompanied by increased parasympathetic nervous system activity including diaphoresis, salivation, bradycardia, pallor, ...

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    • Near-Sightedness (Myopia)

      What is Myopia? Near-sightedness or myopia is a medical condition in which people can easily see objects that are closer but encounter a blurring of vision for visualising the far objects. Myopia occurs when the eyeball is too long or when the corne...

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    • Neck Pain

      What is Neck Pain? Neck pain is the musculoskeletal disorder that causes pain in the muscles of the neck and its surrounding tissue known as fascia. Hence, it is also termed as Cervical myofascial pain. It is also defined by the Global Burden of Hea...

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    • Neuralgia

      What is Neuralgia? Neuralgia is an acute paroxysmal pain radiating along the course of one or more nerves usually without demonstrable changes in the nerve structure. The nerve is usually damaged due to factors like aging, diseases and certain infec...

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    • Nocturia

      What is Nocturia? Nocturia is defined as the need for a patient to get up at night on a regular basis to urinate. A period of sleep must precede and follow the urinary episode to count as a nocturnal void. The condition must be distinguished from No...

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    • Nosebleed (Epistaxis)

      What is Epistaxis? Epistaxis (nosebleed) is one of the most common ear, nose, and throat (ENT) emergencies that present to the emergency department or the primary care clinic. About 60 percent of people have experienced a nosebleed in their lifetime...

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    • Obesity

      What is Obesity? Obesity is the excessive or abnormal accumulation of fat or adipose tissue in the body that impairs health via its association to the risk of development of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemi...

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    • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

      What is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder? Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common, chronic, and long-lasting disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and/or behaviours (compulsions) that he or she feels t...

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    • Onycholysis

      What is Onycholysis? Onycholysis is the separation of a fingernail or toenail from its pink nail bed. The separation occurs gradually and is painless. Causes The most common cause of onycholysis is trauma, especially when it is repeated as in dail...

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    • Onychomycosis (Nail Fungus)

      What is Onychomycosis? Onychomycosis is generally referred to as a non-dermatophytic infection of the nail which is the term used commonly to indicate any fungal infection of the nail. Tinea unguium however differs from onychomycosis as it is the de...

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    • Oral Thrush

      What is Oral Thrush? Oral candidiasis or thrush is an infection of the oral cavity by Candida albicans. The infection occurs secondary to immunosuppression where the immunity may be decreased orally or in general. In a healthy person, the immune sys...

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    • Orchitis

      What is Orchitis? Orchitis is defined as the inflammation of the testicle unilaterally or bilaterally usually caused by viruses and bacteria. Testes are male reproductive organs in the scrotum and are responsible for the production of male sex hormo...

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    • Panic Attack

      What is Panic Attack? Panic attacks are defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM) as "an abrupt surge of intense fear or discomfort" reaching a peak within minutes. Panic disorder, however, is a separate enti...

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    • Parkinson

      What is Parkinson's Disease? Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that mostly presents in later life with generalized slowing of movements (bradykinesia) and at least one other symptom of resting tremor or rigidity. It is idiopathic par...

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    • Peptic Ulcer

      What is Peptic Ulcer? Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is characterized by discontinuation in the inner lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract because of gastric acid secretion or pepsin. This is usually confined to the stomach and proximal duodenum. ...

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    • Pneumonia

      What is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is a form of acute respiratory infection that affects the lungs. In this condition, the alveoli are filled with pus and fluids limiting the supply of oxygen to the lungs. Pneumonia is the single largest infectious cause...

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    • Pre-Diabetes

      What is Pre-Diabetes? Prediabetes is the condition preceded by diabetes mellitus. It is a chronic metabolic condition where blood glucose levels are above the upper threshold considered normal but below the threshold for a diagnosis of diabetes. Hen...

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    • Premenstrual Syndrome

      What is Premenstrual Syndrome? Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) encompasses clinically significant somatic and psychological manifestations during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, leading to substantial distress and impairment in functional capac...

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    • Presbyopia

      What is Presbyopia? Presbyopia is a visual condition which becomes apparent especially in middle age and in which loss of elasticity of the lens of the eye causes defective accommodation and inability to focus sharply for near vision. It is the most...

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    • Pressure Injury

      What is Pressure Injury? Pressure injuries are defined as localized damage to the skin as well as underlying soft tissue, usually occurring over a bony prominence or related to medical devices. They are usually the result of prolonged or severe pres...

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    • Priapism

      What is Priapism? Priapism is a disorder in which the penis maintains a prolonged erection in the absence of appropriate stimulation. There are three main types of priapism- Ischemic Non-ischemic Recurrent ischemic Ischemic driven priapism i...

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    • Pseudogout (CPPD)

      What is Pseudogout? Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) is a crystal deposition arthropathy involving the synovial and periarticular tissues. The condition can present as acute or chronic inflammatory arthritis. Acute calcium pyrophosph...

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    • Psoriasis

      What is Psoriasis? Psoriasis is a chronic proliferative and inflammatory condition of the skin which is characterized by erythematous plaques covered with silvery scales particularly over the extensor surfaces, scalp, and lumbosacral region. The pa...

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    • Rectal Abscess

      What is Rectal Abscess? The presentation of anorectal abscess may vary on the spectrum of complexity based on the location and involvement of surrounding tissue. It is typically caused by the inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue usually from an o...

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    • Rectal Bleeding

      What is Rectal Bleeding? Rectal bleeding, or hematochezia, is a frequently encountered problem in the outpatient setting. It can suggest a pathology in the proximal lower gastrointestinal tract but it can also be due to other rectal conditions. The...

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    • Restless leg syndrome

      What is Restless Leg Syndrome? Restless legs syndrome, or Willis-Ekbom Disease, is a common, chronic, multifactorial, movement disorder of the limbs in which patients have an irresistible urge to move the legs. This condition starts with abnormal an...

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    • Rickets

      What is Rickets? Rickets is characterized by a defect in mineralization and the widening of the epiphyseal plates. Nutritional rickets is the most common cause of bone disease all over the world. Osteomalacia is basically a defect in the mineralizat...

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    • Ringworm (Tinea)

      What is Ringworm? Tinea is a superficial fungal skin infection of the body caused by dermatophytes. The dermatophyte has the ability to attach to the keratinised tissue of the skin which leads to the superficial infection. The lesion is defined by t...

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    • Rosacea

      What is Rosacea? Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disease that presents with recurrent flushing, erythema, telangiectasia, papules, or pustules on nose, chin, cheeks, and forehead. The four clinical subtypes of rosacea based on the sign and ...

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    • Schizophrenia

      What is Schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a functional psychotic disorder characterized by the presence of delusional beliefs, hallucinations, and disturbances in thought, perception, and behaviour. Studies suggest that schizophrenia is a neurodevelo...

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    • Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

      What are Shingles? Herpes zoster is commonly known as shingles. It is a viral disease caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus which remains dormant in the sensory ganglia of the cranial nerve or the dorsal root ganglia after a previous vari...

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    • Sinusitis

      What is Sinusitis? A condition in which the tissue lining the sinuses (small hollow spaces in the bones around the nose) becomes swollen or inflamed is called sinusitis. It is one of the most common health complaints related to physician visits. Ap...

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    • Sleep Disorders

      What are Sleep Disorders? Sleep disorders comprise a group of conditions that disturb the normal sleep pattern of a person. It is one of the most commonly encountered clinical problems which can affect the quality of life immensely. Insomnia is sign...

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    • Smoking Cessation

      Introduction Tobacco is used primarily as cigarette smoking and it is well established that it is the leading cause of preventable disease and death. Smoking increases the risk of different forms of cancer, including lung, liver, and colorectal. Als...

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    • Teething / Dentition

      What is Teething? Teething is the process by which an infant's first teeth (the deciduous teeth, often called "baby teeth" or "milk teeth") sequentially appear by emerging through the gums, typically arriving in pairs. Teething usually begins when ...

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    • Tendinitis

      What is Tendinitis? Tendinitis, also known as tendonitis, is the inflammation of a tendon. It happens when a person overuses or injures a tendon, for example, during sport. It is normally linked to an acute injury with inflammation. It often affects...

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    • Tension Headache

      What is Tension Headache? Tension headaches are often caused by tense head or neck muscles. A tension headache is generally a diffuse, mild to moderate pain in your head that's often described as feeling like a tight band around your head. Tension ...

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    • Thyroid Disease

      What is Thyroid Disease? Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland doesn't supply the proper amount of hormones needed by the body. If the thyroid is overactive, it releases too much thyroid hormone into the bloodstream, resulting in hyperthyroi...

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    • Tonsillitis

      What is Tonsillitis? Tonsillitis is the inflammation of tonsils and is caused due to viral or bacterial infection and presents as a sore throat when uncomplicated. The tonsils are composed of Waldeyer's ring along with the adenoids (nasopharyngeal t...

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    • Torn Knee Meniscus

      What is Torn Knee Meniscus? The lateral and medial menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures that collectively cover approximately 70% of the articular surface of the tibial plateau. The primary function of the menisci is load transm...

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    • Travellers Diarrhoea

      What is Traveller's Diarrhoea? Traveller's diarrhoea is a common ailment in persons traveling to resource-limited destinations overseas. It is considered as three or more loose stools in 24 hours or a two-fold increase from baseline bowel habits. T...

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    • Typhoid Fever

      What is Typhoid Fever? Typhoid fever, also called enteric fever, is characterized by systemic illness along with abdominal pain and fever in a "step-ladder" pattern. It is caused by Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. Enteric fever is a cumul...

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    • Ulcerative Colitis

      What is Ulcerative Colitis? Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the colon which results in diffuse friability and superficial erosions on the colonic wall associated with bleeding. The inflammation is characteristically inv...

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    • Underactive Thyroid (Hypothyroidism)

      What is Hypothyroidism? Hypothyroidism or underactive thyroid results from low levels of thyroid hormone with various aetiologies. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is the inability of the thyroid gland to produce a sufficient amount of thyroi...

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    • Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

      What is Upper Respiratory Tract Infection? Upper respiratory tract infections can be defined as self-limited irritation and swelling of the upper airways with associated cough and no signs of pneumonia, in a patient with no other condition that woul...

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    • Urethritis

      What is Urethritis? Urethritis is characterised by the inflammation of the urethra and is a lower urinary tract infection. It is associated with gonococcal or nongonococcal infections. The cause is usually infectious with Sexually transmitted diseas...

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    • Urinary Incontinence

      What is Urinary Incontinence? Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine. The condition is commonly seen in elderly, especially in nursing homes but it can also affect younger adults and both genders. It is estimated that around 423 m...

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    • Urinary Retention

      What is Urinary Retention? Urinary retention is defined as the inability to void urine voluntarily. The condition may be acute or chronic. Acute retention is sudden inability to urinate and chronic retention is the gradual inability to completely em...

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    • Urinary Tract Infection

      What is Urinary Tract Infection? Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection of the bladder and associated structures. It is also called uncomplicated UTI or cystitis. UTI when seen in males is usually complicated. Women have a shorter u...

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    • Urticaria

      What is Urticaria? The term urticaria has been derived from a common European stinging nettle, Urtica dioica. It is a condition characterised by itchy weal (hives), with or without surrounding erythematous flares. A wheal (weal) is a typical superfi...

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    • Uterine Bleeding

      What is Uterine Bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a broad term that describes irregularities in the menstrual cycle involving frequency, regularity, duration, and volume of flow outside of pregnancy. It is experienced usually at menarche ...

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    • Vaginal Candidiasis

      What is Vaginal Candidiasis? Vulvovaginitis, or inflammation of the vulva and vagina, most commonly occurs in reproductive-aged women and is usually secondary to infection. Candidal vulvovaginitis occurs in almost one third of cases. The condition ...

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    • Vaginitis

      What is Vaginitis? Vaginitis is a frequently encountered problem amongst physicians attending female patients. It is very important to have a firm understanding of the normal vaginal findings on examination. The composition of vaginal flora determi...

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    • Varicose Veins

      What are Varicose Veins? Varicose veins are enlarged, twisted veins that can happen anywhere in the body, but are more common in the legs. Venous reflux, also known as chronic venous insufficiency, is a common condition that causes varicose veins. ...

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    • Vertigo

      What is Vertigo? Vertigo is described as a sensation of motion, most commonly rotational motion and is a symptom of vestibular dysfunction. The symptoms of vertigo result due to asymmetry in the vestibular system. The asymmetry may result from dama...

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    • Voiding Disorders

      What are Voiding Disorders? The normal micturition process requires the proper function of both bladder and urethra. Also, normal functioning of detrusor muscle and competency of internal and external urethral sphincters is essential to ensure a hea...

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    • Vomiting

      What is Vomiting? Vomiting or emesis is clinically defined as the oral eviction of gastrointestinal contents, due to contractions of the gut and the muscles of the thoracoabdominal wall. Physiologically, vomiting is considered to be a somatic drive...

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    • Vulvodynia

      What is Vulvodynia? Vulvodynia is defined as a vulvar pain of at least three months' duration, without a clear, identifiable cause, which may have potential associated factors. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and is an idiopathic pain disorder. The ...

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    • Warts

      What are Warts? Warts are benign lesions that occur in the mucosa and skin caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV) virus. The most common subtypes of HPV causing warts are 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, and 35. Though warts are benign generally, they might become...

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    • Weakness/Asthenia

      What is Weakness? Asthenia, also known as weakness, is the feeling of body fatigue or tiredness. It is best defined as a lack of energy to move muscles in the body. Weakness can be either temporary or permanent depending on the underlying cause. Ae...

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    • Whooping Cough

      What is Whooping Cough? Whooping cough also known by the name of pertussis, "the cough of 100 days" is a serious illness caused by Bordetella pertussis. The disease was first described in 1906. The organism is a gram-negative coccobacillus that lod...

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