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    What is Orchitis?

    Orchitis is defined as the inflammation of the testicle unilaterally or bilaterally usually caused by viruses and bacteria. Testes are male reproductive organs in the scrotum and are responsible for the production of male sex hormones and sperm.

    The major route for the spread of infection to the testicle is blood- borne dissemination for isolated orchitis which is very rare. Ascending infections can also occur.

    Orchitis develops in 14% to 35% postpubertal patients with mumps. Also, mumps virus is responsible for accounting for most of the cases of isolated orchitis.

    Risk factors

    • Viral causes: Orchitis in young patients is caused by a virus, of which mumps and rubella is the most common one. Other viruses include coxsackievirus, varicella, echovirus, and cytomegalovirus.
    • Bacterial causes: Bacterial infections of the prostate and urinary tract infection can cause orchitis. Common causes of bacterial orchitis include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacteria that can cause sexually transmitted infections can also cause orchitis in sexually active males. Common organisms are Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Treponema pallidum.

    Sign and symptoms

    The most common symptom is acute, unilateral testicular pain accompanied by malaise, fatigue and chills. On examination, the affected testes may be enlarged, tender and indurated. Scrotal oedema and erythema may be present. Cremasteric reflex may be normal. Mumps orchitis may be present as a bilateral parotid enlargement present 4 to 8 days after the onset of parotitis.


    The diagnosis is based on the history and physical findings. Laboratory investigations arenעt that helpful. Colour Doppler Ultrasonography of scrotum is the investigation of choice in the case of testicular pain to rule out testicular torsion.

    General management

    Medications are required for the management of the condition. Supportive therapies such as bed rest, scrotal support and hot or cold packs to relieve pain are recommended.

    Warning: Above information provided is an overview of the disease, we strongly recommend a doctor's consultation to prevent further advancement of disease and/or development of complications.

    Disclaimer: The information provided herein on request, is not to be taken as a replacement for medical advice or diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. DO NOT SELF MEDICATE. PLEASE CONSULT YOUR PHYSICIAN FOR PROPER DIAGNOSIS AND PRESCRIPTION.

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