Tobacco is used primarily as cigarette smoking and it is well established that it is the leading cause of preventable disease and death. Smoking increases the risk of different forms of cancer, including lung, liver, and colorectal. Also, eighty-five percent of lung cancers occur in smokers.
Smoking predisposes an individual to the risk of respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and cardiovascular disease. During pregnancy, smoking increases the rate of complications like miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, foetal growth restriction, and congenital anomalies. Neonatal and paediatric complications of exposure to cigarette smoking include sudden infant death syndrome and abnormal lung function in children, such as asthma.
Tobacco kills more than 8 million people annually and over 80% of the worldעs 1.3 billion tobacco users reside in low- and middle-income countries.
Smoking cessation in clinical practice
Physicians, also being the preserver of community health must help the patients to stop smoking. The earlier a person stops smoking, the more their risk of developing lung cancer is reduced. People suffering from cancer also benefit when smoking is discontinued.
The effects of the smoking cessation is visible after hours, weeks and even months when a person stops smoking. These primary benefits included lowering of blood pressure, decreased cough and phlegm production, increased lung capacity.
Necessary pharmacotherapy is essential for helping the patients to quit smoking. However, certain behavioural management techniques are also important. Behavioural interventions found to be effective in aiding adults in smoking cessation include in-person counselling, telephone counselling, and self-help materials. According to the Public Health Service guidelines, individuals should undergo at least 4 in-person counselling sessions. Interventions delivered by various types of providers, including physicians, nurses, psychologists, social workers, and cessation counsellors can be effective.
Warning: Above information provided is an overview of the disease, we strongly recommend a doctor's consultation to prevent further advancement of disease and/or development of complications.
Disclaimer: The information provided herein on request, is not to be taken as a replacement for medical advice or diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. DO NOT SELF MEDICATE. PLEASE CONSULT YOUR PHYSICIAN FOR PROPER DIAGNOSIS AND PRESCRIPTION.
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