What is Obesity?
Obesity is the excessive or abnormal accumulation of fat or adipose tissue in the body that impairs health via its association to the risk of development of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia. The issue has grown to epidemic concern and data suggests that over 4 million people are dying each year as a result of being overweight or obese.
The body mass index (BMI) is used to define obesity, which is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. A body mass index (BMI) over 25 is considered overweight, and over 30 is obese.
Obesity is the outcome of some sort of imbalance between the daily energy intake and its expenditure leading to excessive weight gain. Leptin is an adipocyte hormone which reduces food intake and body weight. Cellular leptin resistance is associated with obesity. Also, obesity is having genetic, cultural and societal factors which are important to take into consideration. Other causes like reduced physical activity, insomnia, endocrine disorders, medications, the accessibility and consumption of excess carbohydrates and high-sugar foods are also included.
Physical examination must be undertaken thoroughly which should include body mass index (BMI), weight circumference etc. Obesity can be classified according to BMI as-
- Underweight: less than 18.5 kg/m²
- Normal range: 18.5 kg/m² to 24.9 kg/m²
- Overweight: 25 kg/m² to 29.9 kg/m²
- Obese, Class I: 30 kg/m² to 34.9 kg/m²
- Obese, Class II: 35 kg/m² to 39.9 kg/m²
- Obese, Class III: more than 40 kg/m²
Laboratory tests like complete blood picture, renal function, lipid profile, TSH, Vitamin D level and ECG studies can be done for assessing the associated medical conditions.
The management of obesity requires a multi-disciplinary approach. Dietary modifications like weight loss monitoring, low carbohydrate diet, low fat diet and proper hydration. The patients can also be referred for intensive behavioural interventions. Medications must not be self-prescribed.
Warning: Above information provided is an overview of the disease, we strongly recommend a doctor's consultation to prevent further advancement of disease and/or development of complications.
Disclaimer: The information provided herein on request, is not to be taken as a replacement for medical advice or diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. DO NOT SELF MEDICATE. PLEASE CONSULT YOUR PHYSICIAN FOR PROPER DIAGNOSIS AND PRESCRIPTION.
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