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    Anaemia

    What is Anaemia?

    According to WHO, anaemia is defined as blood haemoglobin (Hb) concentration < 13 g/dL or haematocrit (Hct) <39% in adult males; Hb <11.5 g/dL or Hct <37% in adult females. It can be caused by various conditions which lead to a decrease in circulating RBCs which can be due to inadequate production or increased RBC destruction.

    Causes

    Anaemia can be due to reduced production or increased loss of RBCs and has many causes -

    • Iron deficiency anaemia,
    • Thalassaemia,
    • Sideroblastic anaemia,
    • Acute blood loss,
    • Anaemia of chronic disease,
    • Bone marrow failure,
    • Renal failure,
    • Hypothyroidism,
    • Haemolysis,
    • Pregnancy,
    • B12 or folate deficiency, etc.

    Signs and Symptoms

    Signs and symptoms depend on the level of anaemia and the course of time over which it develops.

    • Fatigue
    • Dyspnoea
    • Faintness
    • Palpitations
    • Headache
    • Tinnitus
    • Anorexia
    • Pallor

    Acute anaemia is almost always due to blood loss or haemolysis where the clinical picture is that of hypovolemia.

    Moderate anaemia presents with fatigue, loss of stamina, breathlessness and tachycardia with pale skin and mucous membranes.

    Severe anaemia (Hb <8 g/dL) shows signs of hyper dynamic circulation - tachycardia, flow murmurs and cardiac enlargement.

    Diagnosis

    Diagnosis is done mainly through some blood tests like CBC, Serum ferritin levels, B12 and Folate levels, and clinical presentation.

    Management

    It focuses on treating the underlying cause with nutritional supplements as and when required. Proper nutritious diet with an adequate amount of vitamins and minerals is also advised.

    Warning: Above information provided is an overview of the disease, we strongly recommend a doctor's consultation to prevent further advancement of disease and/or development of complications.

    Disclaimer: The information provided herein on request, is not to be taken as a replacement for medical advice or diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. DO NOT SELF MEDICATE. PLEASE CONSULT YOUR PHYSICIAN FOR PROPER DIAGNOSIS AND PRESCRIPTION.

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