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    Bladder Infection/Cystitis

    What is Cystitis?

    Cystitis is the inflammation of the urinary bladder which is a lower urinary tract infection. It affects women more often than men. 81% of the total UTIs in the world occur in women.

    Mild cases are self-limiting but it can become recurrent in many cases. It may be broadly categorized as either uncomplicated or complicated. Uncomplicated cystitis refers to lower urinary tract infection (UTI) in either men or non-pregnant women who are otherwise healthy. Complicated cystitis is associated with risk factors that increase the risk of infection or the risk of failing antibiotic therapy.


    It occurs mostly from a bacterial infection, but some medications and hygiene products can also result in bladder inflammation. Escherichia coli is the most common etiologic agent in uncomplicated UTI in women, accounting for approximately 75% to 95% of cases. Other common etiologic pathogens include species of the Enterobacteriaceae family such as Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae and other bacteria such as Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Escherichia coli is also the most common cause of complicated cystitis, but other organisms such as Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Serratia, pseudomonas, enterococci, staphylococci, and even fungi, can also cause it.

    Signs and Symptoms

    The common symptoms of bladder infection are:

    • Suprapubic pain, burning or stinging while urinating
    • Dysuria
    • Frequent urge to urinate
    • Urine is dark, cloudy or strong-smelling
    • Haematuria in some cases
    • Pain in lower abdomen
    • Malaise
    • Fever and weakness


    Diagnosis is mainly clinical but the doctor may advise some urine and blood tests to confirm the same.


    General measures include increasing water intake, hot fomentation, proper hygiene, and frequent urination with proper medicinal treatment as advised by the doctor.

    Warning: Above information provided is an overview of the disease, we strongly recommend a doctor's consultation to prevent further advancement of disease and/or development of complications.

    Disclaimer: The information provided herein on request, is not to be taken as a replacement for medical advice or diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. DO NOT SELF MEDICATE. PLEASE CONSULT YOUR PHYSICIAN FOR PROPER DIAGNOSIS AND PRESCRIPTION.

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